又一次吃了浮点数的亏 = =
C++ 的 ScopeExitGuard

指针和虚函数表

輝夜(tadvent) posted @ 2014年12月10日 21:45 in C/C++ with tags c++ , 3331 阅读

前两天在水木 C++ 版看到两个题目,分别是关于指针和 class 的虚函数表的。关于指针和数组,之前已经打过很久的交道了,比较简单。不过虚函数表以及 class 成员的内存布局一直是模模糊糊的概念,趁此机会把《C++对象模型》拿出来研究了一把。

题目一

#include<stdio.h>  
int main()  
{  
    int a[5] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};  
    int *ptr = (int*)(&a + 1);    
    printf("%d,%d\n", *(a+1), *(ptr-1));  
} 

输出什么?

数组和指针类型的互相转换,只要弄清楚指针所指地址以及所指的类型就容易分析了:

  1. a 的类型是 int[5],表示一个长度为 5 的 int 型数组
  2. 由于 a 的类型是数组,因此对 a 进行算数运算时,其所指地址是以 sizeof(A[0]) 为单位变化的,这里即是 sizeof(int),因此 *(a+1)a[1]
  3. a 取地址,得到的类型是 int (*)[5],这是一个指针,其指向一个含有 5 个 int 的数组。因此 &a+1 会使地址向后移动 5 个 int 的空间,得到 a[5] 的地址。
  4. ptrint* 类型,因此它的算数运算的单位是 sizeof(int)ptr-1 即可得到 a[4] 的地址。
  5. 综上,程序输出 2,5

题目二

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class A {
    virtual void g() {
        cout << "A::g" << endl;
    }
private:
    virtual void f() {
        cout << "A::f" << endl;
    }
};

class B : public A {
    void g() {
        cout << "B::g" << endl;
    }
    virtual void h() {
        cout << "B::h" << endl;
    }
};

typedef void(*Fun)(void);

int main() {
    B b;
    Fun pFun;
    for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
        pFun = (Fun)*((int*)* (int*)(&b) + i);
        pFun();
    }
}

输出什么?

看那一串丧心病狂的指针操作!!

class 层次很简单,A 里有两个虚函数 g() 和 f(),B 里重写了 g(),又添了一个 h()。A 里那个 private 是多余,所有函数都是 private 的。 main() 里主要就是对那个函数指针 pFun 赋值,然后调用。看来所有的内容都在那个指针操作里。

  1. (&b) 得到 b 的地址,类型是 B*
  2. *(int*)(&b)b 的地址按 int 型指针来解释,并取出这个 int 值。相当于将 b 的前 4 个字节 (32位环境下) 当成一个 int 型读出。假设读出的值是 vptr (好吧……其实就是 vptr)
  3. *((int*)vptr + i) 将上一个操作取出的值再当成一个地址,并添加 i 个单位偏移。由于是 int* 类型,因此每次偏移一个 sizeof(int) 的空间,即 4 字节。粗略来说就相当于读出 vptr[i] 的值。
  4. 最后再转换为 Fun 的函数指针。

用一个图来看一下:

class A 里有两个虚函数,因此它的虚函数表只有两项,分别是 A::g() 和 A::f()。class B 继承自 A,因此它必须首先照搬 A 的虚函数表(前 2 项),然后再添加自己新加的 B::h(),同时在 B 中又重写了 g(),因此 B 的虚函数表里把 A::g() 的位置替换为 B::g()。

根据前面指针的分析可以看出,三次循环分别调用了 B::g(), A::f() 和 B::h()。不过这个调用比较粗暴,完全无视了函数参数。本身类成员函数是带有一个 this 指针做参数的,不过既然这里也没有使用成员变量,因此也就没什么影响了。

以上程序能够成功运行的条件是 class 的虚函数指针位于对象的头部。我试着在 class A 和 class B 中分别添加一个 int 成员,输出结果依然不变(VS2013 和 gcc4.9.2 下),说明这两个编译器都将虚函数指针放在对象头部,没有再试验其他环境,不知道会不会有不同结果。另外,如果是 64位 环境,应将指针变换那一行的所有 int 换成 int64_t 或 long long,不然指针和 int 所占空间不同,地址运算会出错。

 

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Une passion pour le métier de Couvreur de père en fils et un savoir-faire en rénovation de toiture transmis de génération en génération. Une équipe familiale de passionnés formés au métier de couvreur font le bonheur des clients chaque jour à Toulon (83) et dans un périmètre de 40 kms aux alentours.

Une Entreprise de Couverture qui donne entière satisfaction à chaque projet qu’il entreprend pour ses clients.

Pose de Toiture ( tuiles, ardoises, tuiles plates, tuiles terre-cuite etc )
Travaux de Rénovation de toiture
Réfection de la toiture
Réparation de Toiture
Réparation de Toit

Les Atouts :
Choix des matériaux de couverture uniquement de qualité.
Travail dans les normes de sécurité.
Devis sur mesure et déplacements Gratuits.
Tarifs au plus juste

Faites Appel à Couvreur Toulon est un gage de Qualité et satisfaction pour votre projet.<a href="https://www.couvreur-toulon-83.com/">Couvreur</a>

Demoussage toiture 说:
2022年3月07日 11:56

Entrepreneur en rénovation tous corps d'état dans le Val d’Oise (95)

GD BAT 95 est un entrepreneur en rénovation tous corps d'état et entreprises de rénovation de maison ou appartement intervenant dans le Val d’Oise (95).
Un professionnel qui saura mettre en place votre projet en toute sécurité et dans les règles de l'art.

Rénovation maison
Rénovation appartement

Analyse des matériaux et de la construction jusqu’à la planification du budget et l’établissement du calendrier, GD BAT 95 s'occupe de l’intégralité des services d’architecture et de design d’intérieur grâce à une coopération avec des partenaires expérimentés.

Vous pourrez vous apercevoir de la qualité du service, la mise en place de votre projet de rénovation tous corps d'état et un devis sur mesure avec les meilleurs tarifs et garanties.<a href="https://www.gd-bat95.com/">Artisan couvreur</a>

Charpente 说:
2022年3月08日 10:28

Couvreur Marseille, c'est un artisan depuis plus de 30 ans avec une extrême attention et un savoir-faire que vous retrouver uniquement avec un Couvreur Zingueur expérimenté comme lui.

Mr Beautour à un savoir-faire et une expérience dans les toitures - couvertures dans Marseille.
De nombreuses années de pratique du métier au service de ses clients.
Un travail garanti et un service de qualité avec des tarifs au plus juste sur le marché.
Une Entreprise de Couverture de référence à Marseille dans la Couverture.

N'oubliez pas que la toiture de votre habitation est votre protection ainsi que de votre famille et le bien être de votre foyer.

Une bonne toiture protège contre le froid et les intempéries en hiver et contre les rayons du soleil en été.

Une installation de toiture - couverture de qualité dans une grande ville comme Marseille est indispensable.
Couvreur Marseille utilise uniquement des matériaux de grande qualité pour une étanchéité irréprochable.
La satisfaction du client et la qualité d'un travail minutieux reconnu dans le métier dans le tout Marseille depuis des années.<a href="https://www.couvreur-marseille-13.com/">Zingueur</a>

Charpentier 说:
2022年3月09日 17:50

COUVREUR TOULON : Votre Expert Toitures

Couvreur Toulon : Mr Beautour votre artisan à Toulon

Couvreur Toulon : Mr Beautour, Artisan couvreur Zingueur, est recommandée à Toulon et aux alentours depuis plus de 35 ans.

Une passion pour le métier de Couvreur de père en fils et un savoir-faire en rénovation de toiture transmis de génération en génération. Une équipe familiale de passionnés formés au métier de couvreur font le bonheur des clients chaque jour à Toulon (83) et dans un périmètre de 40 kms aux alentours.

Une Entreprise de Couverture qui donne entière satisfaction à chaque projet qu’il entreprend pour ses clients.

Pose de Toiture ( tuiles, ardoises, tuiles plates, tuiles terre-cuite etc )
Travaux de Rénovation de toiture
Réfection de la toiture
Réparation de Toiture
Réparation de Toit

Les Atouts :

Choix des matériaux de couverture uniquement de qualité.
Travail dans les normes de sécurité.
Devis sur mesure et déplacements Gratuits.
Tarifs au plus juste

Faites Appel à Couvreur Toulon est un gage de Qualité et satisfaction pour votre projet.<a href="https://www.couvreur-toulon-83.com/">COUVREUR SEYNE-SUR-MER</a>

Isolation toiture 说:
2022年3月13日 10:40

COUVREUR TOULOUSE : Votre Expert Toiture

Vous recherchez un Couvreur à Toulouse ?
Vous êtes à la bonne adresse !
Couvreur Toulouse, c'est la garantie d''avoir un artisan Couvreur à Toulouse et donc à proximité de chez vous.

Un appel à Couvreur Toulouse et vous allez de suite voir le sérieux de ce couvreur à Toulouse 31000 et alentours.

Besoin de travaux de couverture-zinguerie, pose de fenêtres de toit, réfection de toiture, ravalement de façade, vérification de votre charpente bois, isolation ou gouttières, tout sera fait avec la plus grande attention et un service qualité optimal pour les clients.

Un Artisan Couvreur c'est la garantie du travail bien fait !

Une intervention rapide et professionnelle et un devis avec les meilleurs tarifs
Couvreur Toulouse est le couvreur recommandé pour tous vos travaux de toiture.<a href="https://www.couvreur-toulouse-31.com/">Couvreur toulouse</a>

dishwasher in uae 说:
2022年3月13日 20:57

Finding the Best Dishwasher in UAE can make cleaning dishware and cutlery a breeze. Doing this review to make it easy for you to get the dishwasher of your dreams in the UAE.


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